There has been no police or army presence since then, while the Derna Court of Appeals has been suspended since June 2013 following the assassination of a senior judge, amid repeated threats to judges by armed groups.
Members of the judiciary have refused to report to work unless the state provides the necessary protection and security, which it has continuously failed to do.
The security vacuum was exploited by various armed groups, including Ansar al-Sharia, which effectively controls the city.
Over the past two years security officials, politicians, religious figures and judges have been victims of targeted killings in Derna. These crimes have yet to be fully investigated.
Numerous Islamist armed groups operating in the city appear to have taken advantage of the breakdown of the rule of law to assert their control in an apparent attempt to enforce their own interpretation of Islamic law (shari’a).
Execution-style killings, such as the one depicted in the video, contravene the fundamental principles of humanity enshrined in international humanitarian law.
(Source: Amnesty International)