War has raged in western Libya since 4 April 2019. On one side is the Government of National Accord (GNA), Libya's main internationally recognised government. It is heavily dependent on armed groups for the defence of Tripoli, and increasingly reliant on Turkey, which has provided military equipment, trainers and advisers, and thousands of Syrian mercenaries.
Opposing the GNA is General Khalifa Haftar and his Libyan National Army (LNA) - an alliance of armed groups and foreign mercenaries from Russia, Sudan and Chad. Foreign actors, primarily the United Arab Emirates, have supported the LNA militarily, via direct action, training and equipment, and by providing diplomatic backing and cover.
In 11 months of clashes, the death of around 6 000 fighters and hundreds of civilians, and the displacement of 140 000 Libyans, Haftar's LNA has slowly gained territory in western Libya. Turkey's growing intervention has stalled this advance, and lessened, though not eliminated, the prospect of a military victory for Haftar.
Haftar, however, retains significant international support in his aim to take over Libya. He has effectively marketed himself, and the LNA, as essential for international actors focused on countering crime, terrorism, instability, and, for the UAE, actors linked to the Muslim Brotherhood.